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This document traces the development of the character of Salammbô chronologically.

CONTENTS

NOVEL - FLAUBERT - 1862 - SOURCES

NOVEL - FLAUBERT - EROTICISM

ITEM: OPERA (UNFINISHED) - PETRELLA (d.1877)

ITEM: OPERA LIST - FORNARI - 1881

ITEM: OPERA LIST - MASSA - 1886

OPERA - MASSA - 1886

ITEM: OPERA LIST NAVRATIL - 1890

ITEM: OPERA LIST REYER - 1890

OPERA - REYER - 1890

ITEM: OPERA - REYER - 1890

OPERA - BRUSSELS THEATRE DE LA MONNAIE - BACKGROUND

NEWSPAPERS OF BRUSSELLS - 1890

OPERA - PRODUCTIONS OF SALAMMBO 1890 - 1901

OPERA - PRODUCTIONS OF SALAMMBO

OPERA - REYER - DETAIL

OPERA - COMPOSER DETAIL - REYER

PRECIS OF REYER'S OPERA

OPERA - SET DESIGN FOR REYER'S SALAMBBO

OPERA - SALAMMBO - APPRECIATION

OPERA - REYER - SCENE DESCRIPTION - PERSONAE - ARIA

OPERA - COSTUMES - 1890

OPERA - INTERPRETER - CARON BIOGRAPHY

OPERA - INTERPRETER - CARON - BIOGRAPHY

INTERPRETER DETAIL - CARON BEGINNINGS

INTERPRETER DETAIL - CARON - APPRECIATION

INTERPRETER DETAIL CARON & REYER

OPERA - REYER & CARON

OPERA - REYER & CARON - BUSTS IN OPERA MUSEUM

OPERA - INTERPRETER - CARON

OPERA - INTERPRETER - CARON

SONG (VOICE AND PIANO) - GILBERT 1902

ORIENTAL SYMPHONY (VOICE AND PIANO) - 1903

OPERA - HAUER - 1929

COMPOSER DETAIL - HAUER

BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PARIS OPERA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

NOVEL - FLAUBERT - 1862 - SOURCES

SOURCE: Jolas, Paul. Salammbô - Extraits, Paris 1972 {JM}

[p 9] La ville de Carthage fut fondée selon la légende au IXe siècle avant notre ère par Elissa, appelée Didon dans l'Enéide; elle était la soeur du roi de Tyr, Pygmalion, et avait amené avec elle des Tyriens et des Cypriotes. Les colons donnèrent à leur cité le nom de Qart-Hadasht, c'est à dire «Ville-Neuve».

 

According to legend, the city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century B.C. by Elissa, called Dido in the Aeneiad; she was the sister of the Pygmalion the king of Tyre and had brought with her Tyrians and Cypriots. The settlers gave their city the name of Qart-Hadasht, that is to say "New Town".
[p 12] Il a fait des lectures autour du sujet principal; il se réfère au Périple d'Hannon, unique texte carthaginois qui ait subsisté; encore Flaubert le tient-il pour apocryphe... Il lit Appien, Diodore de Sicile, emprunte à Cornelius Nepos des traits d'Hannibal, qui'il prêtera à Hamilcar; il parcourt Pline, Athénée, Plutarque, Title-Live, Saint Augustin, Xénophon, Juste Lipse, Strabo, Silius Italicus et la bible dans la traduction Cohen. Au début d'aoûtl 1857, il affirma à Ernest Feydeau: «pour qu'un livre sue la verité, il faut étre bourré de son sujet jusque par-dessus les oreilles»

 

He read around the principal subject; he referred to the Périple of Hannon - the only Carthaginian text to have survived, although he considered it apocryphal... He read Appien, Diodore of Sicily, borrowed the traits of Hannipal from Cornelius Nepos and gave them to Hamilcar; he read through Pliny, Athinée, Plutarque, Tite-Live, St. Augustine, Xenophon, Juste Lipse, Strabo, Silius Italicus and the bible in the Cohen translation. At the beginning of August 1857, he stated to Ernest Feydeau: "For a book to follow the truth, he must be stuffed to the eyeballs with its subject-matter.
[p 13] Pour le mobilier et les costumes de Salammbô, il étudie la 21e Dissertation de l'abbé-Mignot, dans les Mémoires de l'Académie des inscriptions; si Sainte-Beuve lui reproche les pierres précieuses, en particular des escarboucles formées par l'urine de lynx, il cite ironiquement sa référance: le Traité des pierreries de Théophraste..... For Salammbô's furniture and costumes, he studied the 21st Dissertation of the abbé-Mignot in the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions; if Sainte-Beuve reproached him for his precious stones, in particular the carbuncles formed from the lynx-urine, he would sarcastically quote his reference: the Treatise on Precious Stones by Theophraste

See p 171 ff Polybe et Flaubert: La Fin des Mercenaires for extract from Polybius' History - original inspiration for Flaubert's novel.

 

NOVEL - FLAUBERT - EROTICISM

SOURCE: Dijkstra, Bram., Idols of Perversity. Fantasies of Feminine Evil in Fin-de-Siècle Culture, New York, 1986, pp 306-313 {BN 4ov 45820}

 

[p 306] Being a true daughter of Eve, the animal woman of the turn of the century thus had a special appreciation for the erotic abilities of the snake. She liked to be with serpents, use them in strange rituals, and generally become involved with them in the most dubious ways. As in so many instances, it was Flaubert who brought into focus this element of late nineteenth century lore. In Salammbô (1862) he described what is clearly an erotic encounter between Salammbô and her serpent, her partner in rituals she performs as a priestess of Baal, a god representing the male exterminating principal.

Salammbô undid her ear pendants, her necklace, her bracelets, her long white gown; she unfastened the band round her hair, and for a few minutes shook it over her shoulders, gently to refresh herself by loosening it. The music outside continued; there were three notes, always the same; headlong, frenzied; the strings grated, the flute boomed; Taanach kept time by clapping her hands; Salammbô, her whole body swaying, chanted her prayers, and her clothes,one after another, fell around her.

The heavy tapestry shook, and above the cord holding it up the python's head appeared. It came down slowly, like a drop of water running along a wall, crawled up among the scattered garments, then, its tail stuck against the ground, reared up straight; and its eyes, more brilliant than carbuncles, fixed on Salammbô.

Horror of the cold or perhaps a certain modesty at first made her hesitate. But she remembered Schahabarim's [sic] orders, came forward; the python fell back and putting the middle of its body round her neck, let its head and tail dangle, like a broken necklace with its two ends trailing on the ground. Salammbô wound it round her waist, under her arms, between her knees: then taking it by the jaw she brought its little triangular mouth to the edge of her teeth, and half closing her eyes, bent back under the moon's rays. The white light seemed to envelop her like a silver mint, her wet footprints glistened on the floor, stars shimmered in the depths of the water; it tightened round her its black coils striped with golden patches. Salammbô gasped beneath this weight, too heavy for her, her back bent, she felt she was dying; and with the tip of its tail it gently flicked her thigh; then as the music ceased, it dropped down again. {pp 174-5}(1)

Predictably the painters and scuptors rushed in to illustrate Salammbô's lascivious encounter. Gaston Bussière's "Scene of the Serpent" emphasized the python's approach, while Gabriel Ferrier(2) concentrated on the lady's pleasure [plate IX 39(3)]. The American Charles Allen Winter's "Fantaisie Egyptiènne", exhibited at the salon in 1898, was a free adaptation of Salammbô's passionate communion with her appreciative lover. In general structure it was much like the sculptor Jean-Antoine-Marie Idrac's(4) version of Flaubert's heroine, which found a place of honor at the World's Columbian Exhibition of 1893 in Chicago [plate IX 38(5)]. Idrac's sculpture was, in turn, closely related to Collier's painting of Lilith, thus demonstrating how easily the literally hundreds of painted versions of Lilith, Salammbô, Lamia, and assorted other snake charmers came to blend as generic descriptions of woman, the eternal eve.

[p 311] Edward Robert Hughes,(6) in a painting exhibited at the Venice Biennale in 1895, made use of Italian fable to paint "Biancabella and Semaritana, Her Snake Sister" [plate IX 44]. The painting served as a good excuse to depict a very modern young lady in a Salammbô-like scene, with the snake...

[p 313] As had already become obvious in Flaubert's description of Salammbô's encounter with the python, it could no longer be denied that woman, more than merely liking to be seen with wld animals, was tempted to copulate with them as well.

BALLET - GIORZA - 1865

SOURCE: Stieger, Franz. Opera Lexikon. Tutzing, 1975, Titelkatalog, Vol III, p 1069

Salammbò Ballet Paolo Giorza Turin, 1865

ITEM: OPERA (UNFINISHED) - PETRELLA (d.1877)

SOURCE: Opern-Handbuch von Dr. Hugo Riemann. Leipzig, 1887.

Salambò: nicht beendete ital. Oper von Err. Petrella. (gest. 1877)

ITEM: OPERA LIST - FORNARI - 1881

SOURCE: Stieger, Franz. Opera Lexikon. Tutzing, 1975, Titelkatalog, Vol III, p 1069

Salammbò e Zuma Op.Ser Vinc. Fornari G.Cammarano. Neapel. 24.11.1881 t. Bellini

ITEM: OPERA LIST - MASSA - 1886

SOURCE: Stieger, Franz. Opera Lexikon. Tutzing, 1975, Titelkatalog, Vol III, p 1069

Salammbò Op.Ser Nic. Massa Zanardini Mailand. 15.4.1886

OPERA - MASSA - 1886

SOURCE: Enciclopedia della Musica. Milan, 1964, Vol III, p 123.

Massa, Nicolò (Calice Ligure 26 X 1854 - Genova 24 I 1894).

Comps. - Op. teatrali: Salambò (Milano 1886)

ITEM: OPERA LIST NAVRATIL - 1890

SOURCE: Stieger, Franz. Opera Lexikon. Tutzing, 1975, Titelkatalog, Vol III, p 1069

Salambo Op. Karl Navratil 1890

ITEM: OPERA LIST REYER - 1890

SOURCE: Stieger, Franz. Opera Lexikon. Tutzing, 1975, Titelkatalog, Vol III, p 1069

Salambo Op5 Ernest de Reyer Camille du Locle Brüssel, 10.2.1890

OPERA - REYER - 1890

SOURCE: Algemene Muziekencyclopedie, Antwerp, 1960.

In 1890 volgde in dezelfde schouwberg zijn Salammbo, naar de beroemde roman van zijn vriend Flaubert...

De invloed van Berlioz en van Wagner is hierbij overheersend...

{Trans: In 1890 there followed in the same theatre his Salammbo, after the famous novel of his friend Flaubert...

The influence of Berlioz and Wagner is overwhelming...}

ITEM: OPERA - REYER - 1890

SOURCE: Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Third Edition, 1928, Vol IV, p 506.

Salammbô, opera in 3 acts; text by du Locle, music by E. Reyer. Produced Brussels, Feb.9, 1890; New York, Metropolitan Opera House, Mar.20, 1901.

OPERA - BRUSSELS THEATRE DE LA MONNAIE - BACKGROUND

SOURCE: Renieu, August, Histoire des Théâtres de Bruxelles. Paris, 1928. {BM 011795 I.30} p 837

Si la Monnaie était une des citadelles de Wagnérisme, on y représentait aussi les ouvrages avancés des compositeurs français de l'école moderne. C'est pourquoi Salammbò, comme pécédemment Sigurd, de Reyer, fut produit à Bruxelles avant Paris. L'interpéretation était excellente et comprenait Mme Caron, Mm. Saléza, Vergnet et Renaud. Le succès fut immédiat.

For bibliography of la Monnaie, see pp 664-5

{Trans: - Although la Monnaie was one of the citadels of Wagnerism, advanced works by French composers of the modern school were also produced there. That is why Salammbo, as was the case with Sigurd, by Reyer, was produced at Brussels before Paris. The interpretation was excellent and comprised Madame Caron, and Messrs Saléza, Vergnet et Renaud. Its success was immediate.}

NEWSPAPERS OF BRUSSELLS - 1890

List of Periodicals covering opera, ballet, etc. in Brussels: {not seen, RH}

La Revue
La Veillée
Le Public Belge
Le Cotillon
La Vie Mondaine
La Sirène
Revue théâtrale, artistique et maindaine.
Bruxelles-Artiste
Bruxelles Attractions
La Soirée(7)

OPERA - PRODUCTIONS OF SALAMMBO 1890 - 1901

SOURCE: Annals of Opera 1597-1940, Alfred Rosenberg, London 1978, p 1137

[Productions of Salammbô]

1890, Brussels, 10 Feb
1890, Rouen, 22 Nov
1892, Paris Opera, 16 May (100th performance 17 June 1900)
1900, New Orleans, 25 Jan
1901, Cairo, Jan
1901, New York, 20 March

 

OPERA - PRODUCTIONS OF SALAMMBO

SOURCE: Manferrari, Umberto, Dizionario delle Opere Melodrammatiche, Firenze, 1955

Rey, Ernesto Luigi Stefano, detto Reyer...

Salammbô (C. du Locle) op.5

Bruxelles, Tr. La Monnaie, 10 Feb 1890

Paris. Tr. de L'Opéra, 16 May 1892

OPERA - REYER - DETAIL

SOURCE: Curzon, H. de. Ernest Reyer. Sa Vie et ses Oeuvres (1823-1909), Paris 1924.

[p 59] {very soon after Flaubert's death} "En un rien de temps, un livret fut fabriqué pour Gevaert et un scénario de ballet par Léo Delibes"

{Translation: In no time at all a libretto was put together for Gevaert and a ballet scenario for Leo Delibes.}

OPERA - COMPOSER DETAIL - REYER

SOURCE: Sadie, Stanley, [Ed.]., The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London 1980 Vol 15, pp 782-3

Reyer, (Louis-Etienne-) Ernest (b. Marseilles, 1 Dec 1823; d Le Lavandou, 15 Jan 1909)

He was sent in 1839 to Algiers to work with an uncle... in a government department... Reyer had thus little formal musical training when Le Sélam, an 'oriental symphony' in four parts to a text by Gautier, was successfully performed in Paris in 1850... It won the praise of Berlioz and established Reyer's inclination toward exotic subject matter.

Within 14 years Reyer had established a minor celebrity and composed a substantial body of music, but though he lived another 46 years, only two significant works appeared: the operas Sigurd and Salammbô together represent his highest achievement as a composer... Salammbô (1890) brought his friend Flaubert's highly coloured novel to the stage and enjoyed equal success, both in Brussels and in France - a success also due to the sumptuousness of its settings and the singing of Rose Caron(8). Both survived in the repertory for 50 years.

PRECIS OF REYER'S OPERA

Précis of the Reyer's opera - Salammbô (from the outline given in Dictionnaire des Opéras.

Act 1

Hamilcar, a Carthaginian Suffete(9) is feasting the mercenary chiefs to try and win their patience over the question of back-pay. Matho, a Lybian chief, breaks open the prison doors and a general revolt ensues.

That is when Salammbo (daughter of Hamilcar) appears and at the sight of her the rebels calm down. She comes down from the terrace and gives Matho a drink. Matho is fascinated by her, but Narr-Havas, King of the Numidians, is jealous and wounds Matho with a knife.

ACT II

The Temple Sanctuary where the priests jealously guard the zaïmph, the sacred mantel of the goddess that no one may touch without dying. Matho and his men have conceived the idea of stealing it. Salammbo arrives and confides in the high priest, Shahabarim, the mortal worry which causes her to have mysterious visions which inform her that Carthage and the mantel are in danger.

While Salammbo is alone, Matho steals the mantel, wrapping it around himself and appearing in it to Salammbo who believes she is seeing a divine apparaition. Matho disabuses her and tells her of his love. She is furious and her cries alert the guards who try to seize Matho, but he escapes.

ACT III

At the Counsel of Elders, Hamilcar has himself named dictator.

On Salammbo's terrace, she thinks of the young barbarian who holds in his hands the destiny of her country. Shahabarim arrives and tells Salammbo that she can save the country only by snatching back the mantel. She is to dress herself up as a beautiful young bride and go off to Matho's tent.

ACT IV

Narr-Havas has effected a reconciliation with Matho and offers him an alliance against the Carthaginians.

Salammbo enters Matho's tent. She demands the holy mantel and Matho is about to give it up to her, but when he learns that she will return with it to Carthage he pushes her away, and then kneels down and begs forgiveness. Salammbo drops into his arms.

On the battle field, the Carthaginians have won, thanks to Narr-Havas, who through his betrayal of Matho has received the hand of Salammbo. Matho, a prisoner now, is to be immolated at the foot of the altar of Tanit, the Goddess, when the union of Salammbo and Narr-Havas is being consecrated.

ACT V

The wedding procession. Matho is brutally thrown by guards against the foot of the statue of Tanit. Shahabarim is preparing to kill him, when the crowd calls out for Salammbo to do the job. She consents and walks forward saying "Whoever has touched you, sacred mantel, must die!" «Quiconque te toucha, voile saint et béni, doit mourir!» But instead of striking the designated victim, she kills herself. Maltho then seizes the blade and kills himself, falling upon the body of his beloved.

OPERA - SET DESIGN FOR REYER'S SALAMBBO

SOURCE: Cohen, Robert et Gigou, Mari-Odile., Cent Ans de Mise en Scène en France (env. 1830-1930), New York, 1986 {BMYM 1986 b 194}

[p 235] Salammbô. Livret de mise en scène. 23 X 18.5 cm 83 p [S 16(1) {This is a reference to its catalogue number in the Bibliothèque de l'Association de la régie théàtrale}

OPERA - SALAMMBO - APPRECIATION

SOURCE: Clément, Félix & Larousse, Pierre. Dictionaire des Opéras, Paris, 1904(?)(10), pp 996-998

... Mais tout concourt à faire du second tableau l'un des spectacles le plus merveilleux and les plus émouvants qui se puissent concevoir: un décor qui est un pur chef-d'oeuvre, une inspiration musicale dont la poésie pleine... vous transporte dans des régions inconnues, enfin une cantatrice (Mme Caron) dont la haute intelligence, le rare sentiment musical et les grandes facultés scéniques mettent dans tout leur relief les beatés de cette inspiration et les font ressortir dans toute leur intensité, voilà ce que nous offre cet épisode enchanteur de la terrasse de Salammbô. Cela est exquis, parfait, et sans une note discordante. Il faut remarquer surtout ici l'adorable mélodie, si poétique, de Salammbô: Qui me donnera, comme à la colombe, des ailes? [see below] que précède une sorte de récitatif plein de douceur, qui revient avec un charme délicieux à la fin de la cantilène... Everything contrived to make the second tableau one of the most marvellous and moving specacles imaginable: the set was masterly, musical inspiration whose sheer poetry... transports you to unknown regions, and finally a singer (Madame Caron) whose great intelligence, rare musical feeling and great dramatic faculties throw the beauties of this inspiration into greater definition and bring out all their intensity. That is what this magical episode on Salammbô's terrace holds in store for us. It is exquisite, perfect, and without a single discordant note. We must draw attention, particularly here, to Salammbô's wonderful melody, which is so poetic: Who will give me wings like unto a dove?, which is preceded by a sort of gentle and soft recitative and which returns with delicious charm at the end of the cantilena...
...L'Oeuvre, il faut le dire au surplus, a été merveilleusement présenté par des artiste de premier ordre: Mme Caron (Salammbô), MM. Saléza (Matho), Vegnet (Shahabarim), Renaud (Hamilcar), Delmas (Narr-Havas) et Beyle (Spendius). ... Moreover, we must mention that the work was marvellously performed by artists of the first order: Mme Caron (Salammbô), MM. Saléza (Matho), Vegnet (Shahabarim), Renaud (Hamilcar), Delmas (Narr-Havas) et Beyle (Spendius)

OPERA - REYER - SCENE DESCRIPTION - PERSONAE - ARIA

SOURCE: Salammbò. Opéra en cinq actes et sept tableaux. Poëme tiré du Roman de Gustave Flaubert par Camille du Locle. Musique de E. Reyer. Paris, 1890.

Personnages: Voix: Artiste
Salammbò Soprano Mme Rose Caron
Fille de Hamilcar
Shahabarim Ténor Mr Vergnet
Grand Prêtre de Tanit
Narr'Havas Basse chantante Mr Sentein
Roi Numide
Gision Basse Mr Peeters
Général Carthaginois
Mathò Ténor Mr. Sellier
Mercenaire Lybian
Hamilcar Baryton Mr Renaud
Suffète Carthaginois
Spendius Baryton Mr Bouvet
Grec, esclave d'Hamilcar
Autharite Basse Mr Challet
Mercenaire Gaulois
Taanach Mezzo Soprano
Le Grand Prêtre de Khamon Ténor
Le Grand Prêtre de Melkarth Ténor
Le Grand Prêtre de Eschmoïn Basse
Le Grand Prêtre de Moloch Basse

 

Carthage, 240 ans avant J-C)

Acte I
Le festin des Mercenaires dans les jardins d'Hamilcar
Acte II
L'enceinte sacrée du temple de Tanit
Act III
(1er Tableau)
Le Conseil des Anciens dans le Sanctuare du temple de Moloch
(2d Tableau)
La terrasse de Salammbò
Acte IV
(1er Tableau)
La tente de Mathò
(2d Tableau)
Le champ de bataille

Acte V

Les noces de Salammbò

 

Scène IV. Salammbò seule.

Salammbò:

Ah! qui me donnera comme à la colombe
Des ailes, pour fuir dans le soir qui tombe?
Qui m'emportera, libre de tourments,
D'angoisses mortelles,
Vers de dieux plus doux, des cieux plus cléments?
Qui me donnera, colombes, vos ailes?
Pareille à la victime enchainée à l'autre,
Qui, tremblante et parée Attend le coup mortel,
J'attends! Je frémis!
quel abîme devant mes pas va s'ouvrir?
Je ne sais rien, sinon que je suis la victime
Et que bientôt je dois mourir!
Qui m'emportera, libre de tourments, D'angoisses mortelles,
Vers de dieux plus doux, des cieux plus cléments?
Qui me donnera, colombes, vos ailes?
Dieux! déjà rententit la trompette sacrée!
L'orient se remplit d'une lueur nacrée!
C'est l'heure! ah!
quel mortel effroi m'a glacée?
Ô Tanit! qu'exiges tu de moi?
Ah! Dérobez-moi sous votre ombre,
Portiques de ce palaces sombre!
Dieux pitoyable aux mortels
Sauvez-moi! Gardez-moi!
Doux foyers paternels!
Who will give me, like unto a dove
wings so I may flee into the falling night?
Who will carry me off, freed from torments and mortal anguish,
Towards gentler gods and more merciful heavens?
Doves, who will give me your wings?
Just like one victim, chained to another,
who, trembling and ready awaits the mortal blow
I wait! I tremble!
What abyss is about to open in front of me?
I know nothing except that I am the victim
and that soon I must die!
Who will carry me off, freed from torments and mortal anguish,
Towards gentler gods and more merciful heavens?
Doves, who will give me your wings?
Gods! The sacred trumpet is already resounding
The Orient is filled with pearly brightness!
It is time! Ah!
What mortel fear has frozen me?
Oh Tanit! What do you demand of me?
Ah! Hide me in your shade,
Porticos of this dark palace!
Ye Gods who have pity for mortels
Save me! Shield me!
Gentle home of my fathers!

 

OPERA - COSTUMES - 1890

SOURCE: Le Costume au Théâtre, No. 9 [N.D.], Paris, {BN 4 yf 40}

Premier Acte -- Robe de satin bleu broche d'or, très peu décolletée et laissant les bras complètement nus. Diadème de rubis, d'émeraudes et de turquoises retenant un long voice jaune paille constellé d'or et orné d'arabesques. Bracelets et colliers formés de perles blanches. First Act. -- Robe of blue satin studded with gold, very slight decolletée et leaving the arms completely bare. A diadem of rubies, emeralds and turquoises holding a long pale yellow veile, starred with gold and decoarated with arabesques. Bracelet and choker of white pearls.
Troisième Acte -- Robe de mousseline jaune, serée à la taille par une ceinture de peirreries. Sur la hanche tombe une cordelière d'or à laquelle est attaché, pour retomber en traîne, un manteau de satin vieux rose brodé d'or. Diadème et bracelets. Third Act. -- Robe of yellow muslin, gathered at the waist by a belt of precious stones. Over the hips there falls a golden cord, to which is attached as a train a cloak of old prink satin embroidered with gold. Diadem and braclets.
Les ressources du théàtre de la Monnaie ne l'ont pas permis, et les costumes exécutés à Bruxelles n'ont aucun caractère; ils sont un peu de toutes les époques et de tous les pays. Il faut faire une exception cependant pour le costume de Salammbô, au dernier acte, que nous n'avons pu reproduire dans nos planches, à cause de sa complication, et qui a été exécuté à peu prés exactement d'après un magnifique dessin de M. Bianchini. The resources of the Théâtre de la Monnaie did not allow it [i.e. to reconstruct the costumes as Flaubert described them in his novel] and the costumes made in Brussels lack character. They are a bit from all periods and all countries - except for Salammbo's costume in the last act, which we have not be able to reproduce in our plates due to it being so complicated and which was made up almost exactly according to a magnificent design by Mr. Bianchini.

OPERA - INTERPRETER - CARON BIOGRAPHY

SOURCE: Gourret, Jean., Encylopédie des Cantatrices de l'Opéra de Paris, Paris 1981 {BN 4ov 38058}

[p 101 ff] Rose Caron. Sur la recommendation de Marie Sasse,(11) le directeur de la Monnaie de Bruxelles consentit un engagement à Rose. C'est ainsi qu'elle débuta en 1883 dans le rôle d'Alice de Robert le Diable, puis chanta Salomé d'Hérodiade et Marguerite en Faust, Marguerite qui, avec son rouet, produiset un effect magique un soir où Reyer se trouvait dans la salle... Upon a recommendation from Marie Sasse, the director of la Monnaie consented to engage Rose. That is how she made her debut in 1883 in the role of Alice in Robert le Diable, then she sang Salomé in Herodiate and Marguerite in Faust - a Marguerite who, with his spinning wheel, produced a magical effect one evening when Reyer was in the audience...
[p 103] Quand elle passa le concours de sortie du Conservatoire, Rose Caron se vit dire par l'un des maîtres du jury «Ne pensez pas à l'opéra, tout au mieux vous ferez carrière dans le café concert!» Mais son petit mari, laid et bossu, ne l'entendit pas de cette oreille. When she passed the graduation competition at the Conservatoire, Rose Caron was told by one of the professors on the jury "Do not think of the opera - at the very best you will have a career as a chanteuse in cafés!" However, he little husband, ugly and hunchback, paid no attention to that.

OPERA - INTERPRETER - CARON - BIOGRAPHY

SOURCE: Larousse de XXe Siècle, Paris 1929, Vol 2.I, pp 6-7

CARON (Rose-Lucile Meunier(sic), dame), cantatrice dramatique française... see for photograph of Rose Caron by Benque.

 

INTERPRETER DETAIL - CARON BEGINNINGS

SOURCE: La Musica Dizionario, Turin 1968, Vol 1, p 353

Caron, Rose-Lucille (nata Meuniez). Soprano francese... Debuttò a Bruxelles nel 1882 in Robert le Diable di Meyerbeer, e partecipò alla prima rappr. di Sigurd di E. Reyer nel 1884. Si produsse a Parigi dal 1885 al 1887 in Ugonotti,... Salammbô di E. Meyer (1892)... Lasciò il teatro nel 1902 dedicandosi all-insegnamento. French soprano... made her debut in Brussells in 1882 in Robert le Diable by Meyerbeer and took part in the first production of Sigurd by E. Reyer in 1884. Appeared in Paris from 1885 to 1887 in Les Huguenots,... Salammbô by E. Reyer... Left the theatre in 1902 to dedicate herself to teaching.

 

INTERPRETER DETAIL - CARON - APPRECIATION

SOURCE: Celleki, Rodolfo., Le Grandi Voci. - Dizionario critico-biografico dei cantanti con discografia operistica, Roma 1964 {BM 317 784 19}

Caron, Rose (R. Lucille Meuniez). Soprano francese. Figlia di contadini, sposò il pianista Caron che la indirizzò allo studio del canto...

Secondo Boschot (La musique et la vie, Paris 1931) l'arte della Caron... «Toute entière et par don de naissance, elle était fait pour le drame.»

INTERPRETER DETAIL CARON & REYER

SOURCE: Dûpechez, Charles., Histoire de l'Opéra de Paris 1875-1980, Paris 1984 {BM YM 1987 a 160}

[p 91] Figures très populaires dont les obsèques (en 1930 pour Rose Caron et en 1935 pour Lucienne Bréval) auront l'ampleur d'un deuil national, les deux catatrices ont en commun d'être «d'authentiques tragédiennes» comme le psalmodient sans relâche les comptes rendus de l'époque... Very popular figures whose funerals (in 1930 for Rose Caron and in 1935 for Lucienne Bréval) were to achieve the stature of national mourning, the two singers had in common that they were 'authentic tragediens' as the accounts of the age report ceaselessly...
Et de Rose Caron, son thuriféraire damné, Ernest Reyer s'écrie: «Quelle flamme dans son regard, quelle grâce dans son sourire, et comme on se sent profondement remué par les inflexions troublantes de cette voix, tour à tour pleine de douceur et d'éclat.» And about Rose Caron, his (damned) devotee, Ernest Reyer wrote: 'What flame in her look, what grace in her smile, and how one feels deeply moved by the troubling inflexions of this voice, both full of gentleness and thunder.
[pp 92-3] Quant à Rose Caron.... Lorsqu'slle sort du Conservatoire en 1882, avec un deuxième prix de chant et un accessit d'opéra, personne ne veut engager cette grande fille dégingandée, aux longs bras secs. Dans son modest logement, elle travaille pourtant sous la férule d'un mari contrefait, ancien chef d'orchestreau théàtre des Nouveautés et pianist-accompagnateur. Ce Pygmalian bossu a senti le talent mal orienté de sa femme. As for Rose Caron... When she came out from the Conservatory in 1882, with a second prize for singing and an 'honourable mention' for opera, no one wanted to employ this large ungainly girl with long sour arms. In his modest lodging she however worked on under her deformed husband's iron-régime. He was the former orchestra leader at the théàtre des Nouveautés and a pianist-accompanist. This hunchback Pygmalian had sensed the misdirected talent of his wife.

OPERA - REYER & CARON

SOURCE: Curzon, H. de. Ernest Reyer. Sa Vie et ses Oeuvres (1823-1909), Paris 1924.

Note: Dedication of the book - A MADAME ROSE CARON, en souvenir de notre ami.

[p 42] (Reyer went to Egypt in 1871-1872 at the invitation of the Viceroy Ismail to see the first performance of Aïda.

[p 53] Reyer vint l'entendre {Mme Caron}, un soir qu'elle jouait Faust... et resta sous le charme... Elle devait bientôt être pour liu comme la collaboratrice la plus intuitive et la plus fidèle.

[p 54] "son geste était noble, autant que son chant classique and pur. C'était une apparition, c'était une révélation.]

[p 161] Le roman de Flaubert, en dépit de tous ses développements de férocité brutale aux couleurs éclatants, est surtout dominé par cette futilité souveraine que résume le dernier mot de la dernière page: «Ainsi mourut la fille d'Hamilcar, pour avoir touché au manteau de Tanit».

OPERA - REYER & CARON - BUSTS IN OPERA MUSEUM

SOURCE: Coredey, Jean. Le Musée de l'Opéra. Paris, 1945. {BM 7960 C.9}

Contains the following references of interest:

[p 13] Buste d'Ernest Reyer, en plâtre par J. Hughes.

E. Reyer (1823-1909) composa Salammbô, Sigurd et et mélodies.

[p 16] Buste de Rose Caron, dans le costume de Marguerite(12), plâtre teinté terre cuite par L. Bernstamm (1890) (Rose Caron chanta à l'opéra de 1885 à 1896)

OPERA - INTERPRETER - CARON

SOURCE: Curzon, Henri de, Salammbô, Le Poëme et l'opéra. Extrait de la Revue de la France Moderne, Paris, 1890, p 21

Avant tout, c'est naturellement à Mme Rose Caron qu'il convient de s'arreter. La reputation qu'elle s'est fait depuis huit ans, les éloges qui lui sont adressés à l'envie, la confiance exceptionelle que lui accorde M. Reyer, n'ont rien que de mérité, et l'on doit y souscrire. Mme Caron possède en perfection les deux qualités essentielles d'une tragédienne - elle sent et elle exprime profondément; elle se pénètre de ses personnages au point de leur donner comme une vie nouvelle, et les revêt d'une originalité pleine de caractère. Ajoutez un physique merveilleusement approprié, une voix vibrante, un grand style... c'est une heureuse fortune pour le rôle de Salammbô d'avoir trouvé pareille interprète. Above all, it is naturally in front of Madame Rose Caron that we must stop. The reputation she has made for herself over the last eight years, the praises which have been addressed to her and the exceptional trust which Mr. Reyer accords her are nothing if not deserved and we must subscribe to them too. Madame Caron possesses to perfection the two essential qualities of a tragedian - she feels and expresses profoundly; she gets into her characters to the extent of giving them a new life and clothing them with an originality which is full of character. Add to this a marvellously apt physique, a vibrant voice and great style... it is a great stroke of luck for the role of Salammbo to have find such an interpreter.

OPERA - INTERPRETER - CARON

SOURCE: La Grande Encyclopédie (1887-1902), Paris (date ?)

...elle aborda successivement plusières rôles du répertoire... et même Marguerite de Faust, rôle qui, dans sa première partie tout au moins, ne convient qu'à demi à son tempérament ardent et passioné.

...Mme Caron a divorcé en 1886, mais elle a continué à porter le nom sous lequel elle s'était fait connaître au théâtre.

SONG (VOICE AND PIANO) - GILBERT 1902

SOURCE: Gilbert, Henry F., Salammbô's Invocation to Tänith, London (?), 1902 {BM G 807t (27)}

(Words by Gustave Flaubert)

 

O Rabetna! Baalet! Tänith!
dost Thou not love me?
Oft have I looked on Thee
O Tänith!
dost Thou not love me?
But no! Ah no!
Thou ever sailest, sailest thro' Thine azure,
and I remain here in the motionless earth.
Oh Tänith, when Thou appearest,
Quietness is spread abroad upon the earth,
The flowers close, the waves are soothed,
And wearied man stretches his breast towards Thee!
And the world with its oceans and mountains,
Looks at itself in Thy face as in a mirror,
Thou art white, Thou are gentle, luminous, serene.
O Rabetna! Baalet! Tänith!
dost Thou not love me?
By the hidden symbols!
By the furrows of the earth!
By the eternal silence
And by the eternal fruitfulness
Mistress of the gloomy sea,
Queen of the watery world.
All Hail
O Tänith! dost Thou not love me? &c

ORIENTAL SYMPHONY (VOICE AND PIANO) - 1903

SOURCE: Chapin Frederic., Salambo, Oriental Symphony, London (?) 1903. {BM 3582 (11)}

[Words by Guy F. Heely - no front cover]

 

Tropic night comes creeping, over jungle glades
Mellow moonbeams are peeping
Thro' the tangled shade.
O'er the palms, stars are gleaming
Zephyrs gently blow
All the night I am dreaming of my Salambo.
[Refrain]
Salambo, Salambo
Forever at your side I stand
A faithful slave at your command.
Salambo, Salambo
Where e'er you lead me I will go
My beautiful Salambo.
Come my Nubian daisy,
Come my jungle queen
Night is gentle and breezy
Skin above serene.
If my love can impel you
We will strolling go,
For I've something to tell you,
Dusky Salambo.

[Refrain]

OPERA - HAUER - 1929

SOURCE: Hauer, Joseph., Salambo (Opus 60), Orchester Score for Opera in 7 scenes after Flaubert's novel, 1929. {BM I 552 b}

COMPOSER DETAIL - HAUER

SOURCE: Pipers Enzyklopädie des Musiktheaters. Heraugegeben von Carl Dalhaus und dem Forschungsinstitut für Musiktheather der Universität Bayreuth unter Leitung von Sieghart Döhring. München, 1987.

Josef Matthias Hauer, geboren am 19 März 1883 in Wiener Neustadt, gestorben am 22 September 1959 in Wien.

{Joseph Matthias Hauer, born 19 March 1883 in Wiener Neustadt, died 22 September 1959 in Vienna.}

BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PARIS OPERA

For Paris Opera see:

Challemell, A., Album de l'Opéra, Paris 1844
Horowicz, Bronislaw., Le Théâtre de l'Opéra. Paris, 1946.
Collection Martinet der Bibliothèque de l'Opéra de Paris.
Periodical: Paris Théâtrale.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Algemene Muziekencyclopedie, Antwerp, 1960.

Blossom, B.A., La Composition de Salammbô, Paris 1914. {BM X.0900/43(2)}

Celleki, Rodolfo., Le Grandi Voci. - Dizionario critico-biografico dei cantanti con discografia operistica, Roma 1964 {BM 317 784 19}

Chapin Frederic., Salambo, Oriental Symphony, London (?) 1903. {BM 3582 (11)}

Clément, Félix & Larousse, Pierre. Dictionaire des Opéras, Paris, 1904(?).

Cohen, Robert et Gigou, Mari-Odile., Cent Ans de Mise en Scène en France (env. 1830-1930), New York, 1986 {BMYM 1986 b 194}

Coleman, A., Sources and Structures of Flaubert's Salammbô, Paris, 1914. {BM X.0900/43(2)}

Coredey, Jean., Le Musée de l'Opéra. Paris, 1945. {BM 7960 C.9}

Curzon, H. de., Croquis d'artistes, Paris, 1898

Curzon, H. de., Salammbô: le poème et l'opéra, Paris 1890.

Curzon, H. de., Ernest Reyer. Sa Vie et ses Oeuvres (1823-1909), Paris 1924.

Costume au Théâtre, Le, No. 9 [N.D.], Paris, {BN 4yf 40}

Delmas, J.F., "Rose Caron" in Musica (periodical), Paris, June 1908.

Dijkstra, Bram., Idols of Perversity. Fantasies of Feminine Evil in Fin-de-Siècle Culture, New York 1986 {BN 4ov 45820}

Du Locle, C. Salammbô. Opéra en cinq actes, Paris 1893. {BM 906 h.15/5}

Dûpechez, Charles., Histoire de l'Opéra de Paris 1875-1980, Paris 1984 {BM YM 1987 a 160}

Enciclopedia della Musica. Milan, 1964, Vol III

Flaubert, Gustave., Salammbô, Paris 1863 {BM 12513 k.5}

Flaubert, G., Salammbò, Paris, 1887 {BM 12515 I.19}

Flaubert, Gustave., Dix compositions gravées à l'eau forte, Paris, 1887. {BM 12515 I.19}

Gers, Arthur de., Le Vade Mecum de l'Amateur d'Opéras. Bruxelles, 1928. {BM X 439/11341}

Gilbert, Henry F., Salammbô's Invocation to Tänith, London (?), 1902 {BM G 807t (27)}

Gourret, Jean., Encylopédie des Cantatrices de l'Opéra de Paris, Paris 1981 {BN 4ov 38058}

Graham-Brown, Sarah., Images of Women, London 1988 {BM YV 1988 b 855}

Grande Encyclopédie, La. (1887-1902), Paris (date ?)

Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Third Edition, 1928.

Hamilton, Arthur., Sources of Religious Element in Flaubert's Salammbô. Paris 1917. {BM X.0900/43(2)}

Hauer, Joseph., Salambo (Opus 60), Orchester Score, 1929 {BM I 552 b}

Honolka, Kurt., Die Grossen Primadonnen. 1960.

Jolas, Paul. Salammbô - Extraits, Paris 1972 {JM}

L'Opéra Nouveau. Édition de: La Revue Théâtrale, Paris, 1908 {BM 1866 C:12}

Larousse de XXe Siècle, Paris 1929, Vol 2.I

Marco, Guy A., Opera: A Research and Information Guide. New York, 1984.

Musica Dizionario, La. Turin 1968

Nadar: Photographies, Arthur Hubschmid, Paris 1979. 11 Rue Sèvras, Paris 6e. {JM} Publie par le Centre National des Lettres.

Pipers Enzyklopädie des Musiktheaters. Heraugegeben von Carl Dalhaus und dem Forschungsinstitut für Musiktheather der Universität Bayreuth unter Leitung von Sieghart Döhring. München, 1987.

Renieu, August., Histoire des Théâtres de Bruxelles. Paris, 1928. {BM 011795 I.30}

Reyer. E., Salammbò. Opéra en cinq actes et sept tableaux. Poëme tiré du Roman de Gustave Flaubert par Camille du Locle. Paris, 1890.

Riemann, Dr.Hugo, Opern-Handbuch, Leipzig, 1887.

Rosenberg, Alfred., Annals of Opera 1597-1940, London 1978.

Sadie, Stanley, [Ed.]., The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London 1980

Sadie, Stanley, The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, London [ck]

Said, Edward., Orientalism, London 1978 {BM 800 27520}

Salès, Jules., Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie. 1856-1970. Brussels, 1971.

Stieger, Franz., Opera Lexikon. Tutzing, 1975.

Wolff, Hellmuth Christian., Oper Szene und Darstellung von 1600 bis 1900. Leipzig, 1968.

Wyndham, H.S., Annals of Covent Garden Theatre from 1732-1897. London, 1906. {not consulted}